Volume Two: Back-Translations

Contains “back-translations” into English of eight pages from Chapter VII of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland with footnotes explaining what the translator did and why. Included are the back-translations of the first edition in each language and, when available, a recent one. Four tables show how certain phrases were translated into the various languages. Most back-translations include an illustration of the book cover.

Table of Contents - Volume Two
(Preliminary formatting)

Introduction Jon A. Lindseth and Alan Tannenbaum

The Back-Translations, listed alphabetically by language

Afrikaans 1965 Lelanie de Roubaix and Ilse Feinauer
Albanian (Tosk dialect) 1985 Merita Bajraktari McCormack
Albanian (Tosk dialect) 2006 Merita Bajraktari McCormack
Appalachian Dialect 2012 Byron W. Sewell
Arabic 1946 Nadia El Kholy
Arabic 2013 Nadia El Kholy
Aragonese 1995 Antonio Chusé Gil Ereza
Armenian (Eastern dialect) 1971 Zoya Pirzad
Aromanian Mariana Bara
Assamese 2008 Pradipta Borgohain
Asturian 1989 Xilberto Llano
Azerbaijani 1974 Sheyda Souleymanova
Basque 1979 Manu López Gaseni
Basque 1989 Manu López Gaseni
Belarusian 2013 Max Ščur
Bengali 1955 Nivedita Sen
Bengali 2004 Nivedita Sen
Blissymbols Michael Everson
Bosnian 1980 Sandra Novkinić
Brazilian Portuguese 1933 Lauro Maia Amorim
Brazilian Portuguese 1997 Lauro Maia Amorim
Breton 1995 Hervé Le Bihan
Bulgarian 1933 Ivan A. Derzhanski
Bulgarian 2006 Ivan A. Derzhanski
Catalan 1927 Francesc Parcerisas, Jacqueline Minett, and Juan Gabriel López Guix
Catalan 2011 Francesc Parcerisas, Jacqueline Minett, and Juan Gabriel López Guix
Cebuano 2012 Marina P. Hamoy
Chinese 1922 Zongxin Feng
Chinese 2010 Bikang Huang
Cornish 1990 Nicholas J. A. Williams
Cornish 2009 Nicholas J. A. Williams
Cornish-English Alan M. Kent
Croatian 1944 Smiljana Narančić Kovač
Croatian 2001 Smiljana Narančić Kovač
Czech [1904] Jiří Rambousek
Czech 1961 Jiří Rambousek
Danish 1875 Viggo Hjørnager Pedersen
Danish 2000 Viggo Hjørnager Pedersen
Dari (Kabuli dialect) Rahman A. Arman
Dutch ca. 1887 Lenny de Rooy
Dutch 2009 Lenny de Rooy
Esperanto 1910 Patrick H. Wynne
Esperanto 2004 Patrick H. Wynne
Estonian 1940 Ene-Reet Soovik and Risto Järv
Estonian 2008 Ene-Reet Soovik and Risto Järv
Ewondo Stephanie Engola
Faroese 1988 Bergljót av Skarði
Fijian Apolonia Tamata
Filipino 2000 Marina P. Hamoy
Finnish 1906 Markus Lång
Finnish 1995 Markus Lång
French 1869 Isabelle Nières-Chevrel
French 1961 Isabelle Nières-Chevrel
Frisian (West) 1964 Jant van der Weg-Laverman
Galician 1984 Teresa Barro
Georgian 1969 Giorgi Gokieli
Georgian 1997 Giorgi Gokieli
German 1869 Emer O’Sullivan and Beatrice Brodesser
German 1963 Emer O’Sullivan and Beatrice Brodesser
Gothic David A. Carlton
Greek 1973 Deborah Brown Kazazis
Greek 2003 Deborah Brown Kazazis
Gujarati 1917 Taarū Mēghānee Kajāāriā
Gujarati 1991 Taarū Mēghānee Kajāāriā
Hawaiian 2012 Keao NeSmith
Hebrew 1923 Miriam Shlesinger and Rachel Weissbrod
Hebrew 1997 Miriam Shlesinger and Rachel Weissbrod
Hindi 1961 Sumanyu Satpathy and Lalit Kumar
Hindi 1997 Sumanyu Satpathy and Lalit Kumar
Hungarian 1927 Anna Kérchy
Hungarian 2009 Anna Kérchy
Icelandic 1937 Aleksandra M. Cieślińska and Magnea J. Matthíasdóttir
Icelandic 1996 Magnea J. Matthíasdóttir and Aleksandra M. Cieślińska
Indonesian 1978 Issy Yuliasri and Harry Aveling
Indonesian 2009 Harry Aveling and Issy Yuliasri
Irish 1922 Nicholas J. A. Williams and Alan Titley
Irish 2003 Alan Titley
Italian 1872 Adele Cammarata
Italian 1993 Adele Cammarata
Japanese 1910 Kimie Kusumoto
Japanese 2006 Kimie Kusumoto
Jèrriais 2012 Geraint Jennings
Kannada 2007 Vijayakumar M. Boratti
Kazakh 1993 Fatima Moldashova
Konkani 1970 Augusto Pinto
Korean 1960 Kang-hoon Lee and Heidi Terlinden
Korean 2005 Kang-hoon Lee and Heidi Terlinden
Kurdish (Sorani dialect) 2012 Kaveh Tagharobi
Ladino Avner Perez
Lao Gregory H. Green
Latgalian Iveta Senkāne
Latin 1964 August A. Imholtz, Jr.
Latvian 1937 Kristīne Baiža and Gunta Ločmele.
Latvian 1990 Indra Āboliņa, Guna Logina, Carla Caseti, Eva Šteinberga, Kristīne Baiža and Gunta Ločmele.
Lingua Franca Nova 2012 Simon Davies
Lingwa de Planeta 2014 Dmitry Ivanov and Michael Everson
Lithuanian 1957 Agnė Zolubienė
Lithuanian 2000 Agnė Zolubienė
Lojban Mark Shoulson
Low German 2010 Reinhard F. Hahn
Macedonian 1957 Rumena Bužarovska
Macedonian 1987 Rumena Bužarovska
Malay 2014 Zubaidah Ibrahim-Bell
Malayalam 1955 Anto Thomas Chakramakkil and Alida Allison
Malayalam 2000 Anto Thomas Chakramakkil and Alida Allison
Maltese 1998 Ġorġ Mallia
Maltese 2003 Ġorġ Mallia
Manlam Ngy (Taiwanese variety of Min Nan) 2006 Gina Chiu Chang
Manx 2010 Alan Titley
Māori Tom Roa
Marathi 1952 Swati Jaideep Raje
Medieval Irish Elizabeth Boyle
Mennonite Low German 2012 Jack Thiessen
Middle Breton Hervé Le Bihan
Middle English 2013 Brian S. Lee
Middle Welsh Silva Nurmio
Moldavian (variety of Romanian) 1968 Elena Suff
Moldavian (variety of Romanian) 1982 Elena Suff
Mongolian 1972 G. Mend-Ooyo and S. Soyolbold
Montenegrin 1976 Gordana Kustudić
Ndebele (Zimbabwean) Dion Nkomo
Neapolitan 2002 Stefania Tondo
Neo 2013 Michael Everson
Nepali 1992 C. M. Bandhu
Norwegian (Bokmål dialect) 1903 Hilde Hagerup and Kristin Ørjasæter
Norwegian (Bokmål dialect) 2003 Hilde Hagerup and Kristin Ørjasæter
Norwegian (Nynorsk dialect) 2003 Hilde Hagerup and Kristin Ørjasæter
Occitan (Provençal dialect) 1998 Philippe Blanchet
Old English (West Saxon dialect) Peter S. Baker
Old Norse Victoria Condie, Alexis Lansbury, and Richard Munro
Oriya 2005 Sumanyu Satpathy and Animesh Mohapatra
Palatine German (Vorderpälzisch dialect) 2013 Franz Schlosser
Pashto Rahman Arman
Persian 1959 Farideh Pourgiv
Persian 2012 Zoya Pirzad and Farideh Pourgiv
Picard (Borain dialect) 2012 André Capron
Pitjantjatjara 1975 Nancy Sheppard
Polish 1910 Monika Adamczyk-Garbowska
Polish 1972 Monika Adamczyk-Garbowska
Portuguese 1943 Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta
Portuguese 2000 Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta
Romanian 1946 Claudia E. Stoian
Romanian 2012 Claudia E. Stoian
Russian 1879 Maria L. Isakova
Russian 1923 Maria L. Isakova
Russian 1978 Maria L. Isakova
Rusyn 1988 Mihajlo Fejsa
Sambahsa 2013 Olivier Simon
Samoan 2013 Luafata Simanu-Klutz
Sasak 1990 Hariro Zamzam, Muhammad Rifqi and Harry Aveling
Scots (Borders dialect) Cameron Halfpenny
Scots (Caithness dialect) James Miller
Scots (East Angus & Kincardine dialect) Raymond Vettese
Scots (Glaswegian dialect) 2014 Thomas Clark
Scots (Northeast dialect) 2012 Derrick McClure
Scots (Orkney dialect) Donna Heddle
Scots (Shetlandic dialect) 2012 Laureen Johnson
Scots (Southeast Central dialect) 2011 Sandy Fleming
Scots (Synthetic Literary) 2013 Andrew McCallum
Scots (Ulster dialect) 2011 Michael Everson and Anne Morrison-Smyth
Scots (West Central Ayrshire dialect) James Begg
Scottish Gaelic (Mid-Argyll dialect) Àdhamh Ó Broin
Scottish Gaelic (Non-Dialectal) 2012 Moray Watson
Scottish Gaelic (South Uist dialect) Gilbert MacMillan
Scouse (Dialect of Liverpool English) Patrick Honeybone
Serbian 1923 Tijana Tropin
Serbian 1998 Tijana Tropin
Seychelles Creole [1989] Penda Choppy
Shangani Peniah Mabaso
Shona Shumirai Nyota and Tsitsi Nyoni
Sinhala 1963 Sugath Mahinda Senarath
Sinhala 2007 Sugath Mahinda Senarath
Slovak 1959 Juraj Vojtek
Slovak 1996 Jan George Frajkor and Juraj Vojtek
Slovenian 1951 Mihajlo Mohor
Slovenian 1990 Mihajlo Mohor
Spanish 1927 Jacqueline Minett and Juan Gabriel López Guix
Spanish 2002 Jacqueline Minett and Juan Gabriel López Guix
Swahili 1940 Ida Hadjivayanis
Swedish 1870 Björn Sundmark
Swedish 2009 Björn Sundmark
Tagalog 2014 Marina P. Hamoy
Tajiki 1985 Bahridin Aliev-Alizoda
Tamil 1971 R. Azhagarasan
Tamil 2008 R. Azhagarasan
Telugu 2013 K. Suneetha Rani
Thai 1959 Chris Baker and Pasuk Phongpaichit
Thai 2009 Chris Baker and Pasuk Phongpaichit
Tongan Telesia Kalavite
Turkish 1944 Alev Balcı Tison
Turkish 1992 Alev Balcı Tison
Turoyo Abdulmesih BarAbraham and Jan Bet-Şawoce
Ukrainian 1960 Oleg Lipchenko
Ukrainian 2001 Oleg Lipchenko
Urdu 1968 Raees Ahmed Mughal
Urdu 1981 Raees Ahmed Mughal
Uyghur 1983 Umarjan Hujiahmet
Viennese 2012 Hans Werner Sokop
Vietnamese 2009 [James] Đỗ Bá Phước and Thúy D. Tranviet
Volapük Michael Everson
Võro Sulev Iva
Walloon 2012 Jean-Luc Fauconnier
Welsh 1982 Sioned Davies
Yiddish 2012 Adina Bar-El
Yiddish Joan Braman
Zulu Bhekinkosi Ntuli
Zumorigénflit (Łĭźġ dialect) 1919 Byron W. Sewell

Appendix

Appendix Analysis of the Back-Translations
Table 1. The “Twinkle” Verse
Table 2. The “Milk-Jug” Phrase
Table 3. The “M” Words
Table 4. The Characters at the Mad Tea-Party